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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1899

高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心是一种(zhong)(zhong)可(ke)以对加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)一种(zhong)(zhong)工(gong)(gong)具能(neng)够如此快(kuai)速(su)(su)(su)的(de)(de)(de)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)除了因为(wei)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精密(mi)度(du)和成熟的(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)之外更多的(de)(de)(de)还(hai)是得(de)利(li)与其优(you)秀的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)系统,在当前的(de)(de)(de)机床加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)行(xing)(xing)业中为(wei)视线(xian)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)稳定的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)精度(du)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)运行(xing)(xing)快(kuai)速(su)(su)(su)且功能(neng)强大的(de)(de)(de)计算(suan)机数(shu)控(kong)系统是必(bi)不(bu)可(ke)少,需要注(zhu)意的(de)(de)(de)是高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)系统必(bi)须能(neng)够足够快(kuai)地处理数(shu)控(kong)程(cheng)序(xu)代(dai)码段以保持程(cheng)序(xu)中规定的(de)(de)(de)进(jin)给速(su)(su)(su)度(du)。

 

高速加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)在实(shi)(shi)际(ji)运行中(zhong)是(shi)计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系统(tong)用于(yu)测量一次(ci)(ci)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台的(de)(de)(de)实(shi)(shi)际(ji)位置并发出一次(ci)(ci)进给(ji)命令所用的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)间,对(dui)于(yu)伺服(fu)周期和代码(ma)段(duan)处理时(shi)(shi)间是(shi)计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)两个重(zhong)要(yao)参数(shu)(shu)及(ji)其(qi)概念。计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系统(tong)处理并完成一条加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)指令代码(ma)段(duan)规定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)位移所花费的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)间。 计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)这(zhei)两个参数(shu)(shu)对(dui)于(yu)高速加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)来说非(fei)常重(zhong)要(yao),因为他们将决定(ding)机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)速度和加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精度。在这(zhei)里,精度意味着在采用线(xian)性(xing)插补(bu)时(shi)(shi),用直线(xian)段(duan)来逼近(jin)零件轮廊所允许的(de)(de)(de)最大误差。

 

我们可以(yi)(yi)看到(dao)在(zai)高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)必(bi)(bi)(bi)须保证(zheng)形成(cheng)精确的(de)加(jia)工(gong)轨迹,另外(wai),在(zai)用直(zhi)线(xian)段(duan)来逼近零(ling)件(jian)轮廊时,为了(le)保证(zheng)精度(du),直(zhi)线(xian)段(duan)势必(bi)(bi)(bi)很短,从而(er)使得(de)零(ling)件(jian)程(cheng)序变(bian)得(de)很长。基于此(ci),计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)需要一个32位的(de)微处理(li)器,有(you)时甚至需要多个微处理(li)器,以(yi)(yi)完成(cheng)高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)插补、高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)段(duan)处理(li)和良好的(de)待(dai)(dai)加(jia)工(gong)轨迹监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能。为了(le)能预先(xian)知道刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)路径以(yi)(yi)避(bi)免在(zai)拐角 处出现事故(gu),计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)最好是(shi)具(ju)有(you)较多段(duan)加(jia)工(gong) NC代码轨迹监控(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)能力,这与司机(ji)必(bi)(bi)(bi)须有(you)良好的(de)视野 范围才能高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)驾驶一辆汽车有(you)些类似(si)。 目前所有(you)较高(gao)(gao)水平的(de)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)都具(ju)有(you)待(dai)(dai)加(jia)工(gong)轨迹监控(kong)(kong)(kong)能力。所谓待(dai)(dai)加(jia)工(gong)轨迹监控(kong)(kong)(kong),就是(shi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)在(zai)控(kong)(kong)(kong)制加(jia)工(gong)的(de)同时扫描待(dai)(dai)加(jia)工(gong)的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)代码,看刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)路径是(shi)否(fou)有(you)方向(xiang)上的(de)突然改(gai)(gai)变(bian),如果计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)发(fa)现前面(mian)必(bi)(bi)(bi)须改(gai)(gai)变(bian)进给方向(xiang)时,自动执行加(jia)减速(su)(su)(su)程(cheng)序,以(yi)(yi)避(bi)免高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心偏离(li)程(cheng)序中(zhong)规定(ding)的(de)切削加(jia)工(gong)路径。


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