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数控加工中心的近代工业文明发展史

日期:2017-08-10 作者(zhe): 人气:1540

数控(kong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)是当前机(ji)械加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)领(ling)域中(zhong)应用最为广泛的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)机(ji)床(chuang)类(lei)机(ji)械,在将时间(jian)推移到上世(shi)纪(ji)初,当时虽然也有类(lei)似加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)类(lei)的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)床(chuang)产(chan)品(pin),但都相(xiang)当的(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)始,更(geng)谈不上采用当今数控(kong)形式的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)来进行(xing)运作(zuo)了,回(hui)顾百年我们不难发现,如今的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)产(chan)品(pin),其实在很(hen)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)理和加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺方面还是和加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)始加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺有着异曲同(tong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)之妙(miao),如今更(geng)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)行(xing)业(ye)专家更(geng)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)会将数控(kong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)专业(ye)的(de)(de)(de)称(cheng)为CNC加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)。

 

回顾历(li)史我们可以(yi)知道,世(shi)界上第(di)一台正(zheng)式(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)车床诞(dan)生于上世(shi)纪(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)50年代(dai)左(zuo)右,当(dang)时(shi)(shi)美国帕森斯公(gong)司接受美国空军委托制(zhi)造飞机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)螺(luo)旋桨加工(gong)(gong)(gong)设备(bei),因为(wei)精度要(yao)求(qiu)较(jiao)高(gao),必须有计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)来进行(xing)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)这时(shi)(shi)候(hou)该公(gong)司在(zai)美国麻省理工(gong)(gong)(gong)学院(MIT)伺服机(ji)(ji)构研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)室的(de)(de)(de)(de)协助下才开(kai)始了(le)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)应用,在(zai)1952年试制(zhi)成功的(de)(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)机(ji)(ji)械发(fa)(fa)明了(le),在(zai)过(guo)了(le)5年左(zuo)右的(de)(de)(de)(de)完(wan)善1957年这种加工(gong)(gong)(gong)设备(bei)被正(zheng)式(shi)投入使(shi)用,这也是现代(dai)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)基本雏形,当(dang)时(shi)(shi)我国国内也是工(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)兴起时(shi)(shi)代(dai)在(zai)1958年左(zuo)右我国也对数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)设备(bei)进行(xing)研(yan)(yan)制(zhi)开(kai)发(fa)(fa),此(ci)后(hou)在(zai)随(sui)着20世(shi)纪(ji)中(zhong)后(hou)期电子技(ji)术的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)速发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)数字化信号控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)机(ji)(ji)床运(yun)动的(de)(de)(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)方(fang)式(shi)变的(de)(de)(de)(de)越(yue)(yue)来越(yue)(yue)成熟,在(zai)此(ci)以(yi)后(hou),从1960年开(kai)始,其他(ta)一些工(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)国家(jia),如德国、日本都(dou)陆续开(kai)发(fa)(fa)、生产及使(shi)用了(le)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)床。

 

在(zai)时间到(dao)了(le)(le)1960年左右很多机(ji)械工业生产大国开(kai)始批量的(de)(de)(de)生产配(pei)有(you)晶体管(guan)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)三(san)坐标(biao)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)铣(xian)床,到(dao)了(le)(le)1965年以(yi)后,点位控(kong)(kong)制的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)加(jia)工设备得(de)到(dao)了(le)(le)迅(xun)速发(fa)展(zhan),同时也(ye)迅(xun)速的(de)(de)(de)推动了(le)(le)坐标(biao)镗床、数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)铣(xian)床、冲床的(de)(de)(de)大量发(fa)展(zhan),随(sui)着数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan)不断深入数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)加(jia)工中心也(ye)开(kai)始逐渐开(kai)始成(cheng)熟,在(zai)后来一(yi)种具有(you)自动换刀(dao)装(zhuang)置的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机(ji)床,它能实现(xian)工件一(yi)次(ci)装(zhuang)卡而进行多工序的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工并且(qie)可(ke)以(yi)缩短机(ji)床上(shang)零件的(de)(de)(de)装(zhuang)卸时间和更换刀(dao)具的(de)(de)(de)时间,这就是现(xian)在(zai)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)加(jia)工中心的(de)(de)(de)基本形状(zhuang),在(zai)到(dao)了(le)(le)上(shang)世纪60年代的(de)(de)(de)后期(qi)英国的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)床制造业界把几台数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机(ji)床连接(jie)成(cheng)具有(you)柔(rou)性的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工系(xi)统(tong),而微(wei)处(chu)理器直接(jie)用于数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机(ji)床,使(shi)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)(de)软件功(gong)能加(jia)强。

 

在(zai)到了(le)80年代左(zuo)右,西方(fang)(fang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)较为(wei)(wei)发达的(de)(de)(de)国(guo)家开始(shi)(shi)出现了(le)1~4台加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)或车(che)削中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)为(wei)(wei)主(zhu)体的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin),从此数(shu)控(kong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)慢慢的(de)(de)(de)开始(shi)(shi)从中(zhong)小批(pi)量加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)向大批(pi)量加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发展,到了(le)目前为(wei)(wei)止数(shu)控(kong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)已(yi)经成为(wei)(wei)数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床中(zhong)一(yi)种非常重要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)种。纵观未来,随着电子(zi)计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)发展以及(ji)微电子(zi)技(ji)术在(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)成熟度,数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)自动化程度也(ye)更为(wei)(wei)提高,一(yi)些新兴(xing)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方(fang)(fang)式例如多工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)集(ji)中(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)以及(ji)激光加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)等(deng)都开始(shi)(shi)融入了(le)数(shu)控(kong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)领域,从而形成了(le)更为(wei)(wei)综合的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)单(dan)元体,加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)更为(wei)(wei)可靠更有效(xiao)率,稳定(ding)性则变的(de)(de)(de)更强。


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